# About CMFs

A crash modification factor (CMF) is a multiplicative factor used to compute the expected number of crashes after implementing a given countermeasure at a specific site.

For example, an intersection is experiencing 100 angle crashes and 500 rear-end crashes per year. If you apply a countermeasure that has a CMF of 0.80 for angle crashes, then you can expect to see 80 angle crashes per year following the implementation of the countermeasure (100 x 0.80 = 80). If the same countermeasure also has a CMF of 1.10 for rear-end crashes, then you would also expect to also see 550 rear-end crashes per year following the countermeasure (500 x 1.10 = 550).

The CMF Clearinghouse presents both CMFs and CRFs, or Crash Reduction Factors. The main difference between CRF and CMF is that CRF provides an estimate of the percentage reduction in crashes, while CMF is a multiplicative factor used to compute the expected number of crashes after implementing a given improvement. Both terms are presented in the Clearinghouse because both are widely used in the field of traffic safety.

Mathematically stated, CMF = 1 - (CRF/100). For example, if a particular countermeasure is expected to reduce the number of crashes by 23% (i.e., the CRF is 23), the CMF will be 1 - (23/100) = 0.77. On the other hand, if the treatment is expected to increase the number of crashes by 23% (i.e., the CRF is -23), the CMF will be = 1 - (-23/100) = 1.23.

It is important to note that a CMF represents the long-term expected reduction in crashes and this estimate is based on the crash experience at a limited number of study sites; the actual reduction may vary.