Study Details

Study Title: Handbook of Road Safety Measures

Authors: Elvik, R. and Vaa, T.

Publication Date: 2004

Abstract:

Study Citation: Elvik, R. and Vaa, T., "Handbook of Road Safety Measures." Oxford, United Kingdom, Elsevier, (2004)


CMFs Associated With This Study

Category: Access management

Countermeasure: Provide a raised median

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.94 -94 1 Star All K,A,B,C Not specified Rural
2.28 -128 2 Stars All O Not specified Rural
0.61 [B] 39 4 Stars All K,A,B,C Not Specified Urban
0.78 [B] 22 5 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Urban
1.09 [B] -9 5 Stars All O Principal Arterial Other Urban
0.88 [B] 12 5 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural
0.82 [B] 18 5 Stars All O Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Reduce driveways from 10-24 to less than 10 per mile

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 [B] 25 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Reduce driveways from 26-48 to 10-24 per mile

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.69 [B] 31 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Countermeasure: Reduce driveways from 48 to 26-48 per mile

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.71 [B] 29 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban and suburban

Category:Advanced technology and ITS

Countermeasure: Individual changeable speed warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.59 41 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install changeable "Queue Ahead" warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.84 [B] 16 3 Stars Rear end A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Urban
1.16 [I] -16 3 Stars Rear end O Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Urban

Countermeasure: Install changeable crash ahead warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.56 [I] 44 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Urban

Countermeasure: Install changeable speed warning signs for individual drivers

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.54 [I] 46 4 Stars All All Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Provide active close-following warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 6 1 Star Rear end Not Specified Not specified Not specified

Category:Bicyclists

Countermeasure: Raised bicycle crossings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.09 -9 1 Star Vehicle/bicycle A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Category:Delineation

Countermeasure: Add lane lines on multilane roadway segments

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.82 18 3 Stars All All Principal Arterial Other Urban

Countermeasure: Install distance markers (angle symbols) on roadway segments

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.44 56 3 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways Not specified

Countermeasure: Install edgelines, centerlines, and post-mounted delineators

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.55 [B] 45 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified All

Countermeasure: Install post-mounted delineators

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.04 [B*] -4 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
1.05 [B*] -5 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Install raised pavement markers and transverse rumble strips on approach to horizontal curves

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 6 2 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place centerline markings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.99 [B*] 1 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
1.01 [B*] -1 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place edgeline and centerline markings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.76 [B] 24 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place standard edgeline marking (4-6 in)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.97 [B*] 3 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
0.97 [B*] 3 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Place wide (8 inches) edgeline markings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.05 [B*] -5 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
0.99 [I*] 1 3 Stars All O Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Placing edgelines and background/ directional markings on horizontal curves

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.81 19 3 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Rural

Category:Highway lighting

Countermeasure: Illumination

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.69 31 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified
0.31 69 3 Stars All K All All
0.27 74 1 Star All K All Rural
0.8 20 3 Stars All A,B,C All Rural
0.7 30 2 Stars All O All Rural
0.37 64 1 Star All K All Urban
0.69 32 4 Stars All A,B,C All Urban
0.84 16 4 Stars All O All Urban
0.27 73 1 Star All K Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways All
0.73 27 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways All
0.68 32 3 Stars All O Principal Arterial Other Freeways and Expressways All

Countermeasure: Provide highway lighting

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.31 69 3 Stars All K All All
0.72 [B] 28 4 Stars Nighttime A,B,C All All
0.83 [B] 18 4 Stars Nighttime O All All

Countermeasure: Provide intersection illumination

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.62 [B] 38 4 Stars Nighttime A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.69 31 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified
0.22 78 1 Star Vehicle/pedestrian K Not specified Not specified
0.58 [I] 42 4 Stars Nighttime,Vehicle/pedestrian A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.23 77 3 Stars All K Not specified Not specified
0.5 50 3 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.52 49 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified
0.19 82 3 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian K Not specified Not specified
0.41 59 4 Stars Vehicle/pedestrian A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Category:Interchange design

Countermeasure: Extend acceleration lane by approx. 98 ft (30 m)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 11 5 Stars All All Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Extend deceleration lane by approx. 100 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.93 [B*] 7 3 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Category:Intersection geometry

Countermeasure: Convert four-leg intersection into two three-leg intersections

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.35 -35 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Urban
0.75 [B] 25 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Urban
0.67 [B] 33 4 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Urban
1.15 [B] -15 3 Stars All O Not Specified Urban
1 [B*] 0 3 Stars All O Not Specified Urban
0.9 [B*] 10 3 Stars All O Not Specified Urban

Countermeasure: Painted channelization of both major and minor roads

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.43 57 4 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Painted channelization of left-turn lane on major road

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 22 3 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.8 20 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural
1.28 -28 2 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.74 26 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Physical channelization of both major and minor roads

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.16 -16 3 Stars All K,A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.73 27 4 Stars All K,A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.87 13 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Physical channelization of right-turn lane on major road

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.98 2 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.87 13 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.81 19 1 Star All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Provide a channelized left-turn lane on both major- and minor-road approaches

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.73 [I] 27 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural

Countermeasure: Provide a channelized left-turn lane on both major-road approaches

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.2 -20 2 Stars All O Not specified Rural
0.96 [I*] 4 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Rural
0.84 16 3 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Category:Intersection traffic control

Countermeasure: Permit right-turn-on-red

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.6 [B] -60 4 Stars Right turn A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
1.1 [B] -10 5 Stars Right turn O Not Specified Not Specified

Category:On-street parking

Countermeasure: Convert angle parking to parallel parking

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.65 35 4 Stars All All Local Urban
0.37 63 4 Stars Parking related All Local Urban

Countermeasure: Convert free to regulated parking

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 [B*] 6 3 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban
1.19 [B] -19 5 Stars All O Minor Arterial Urban

Countermeasure: Implement time-limited parking restrictions

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 [B] 11 3 Stars All All Minor Arterial,Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban
0.21 [B] 79 4 Stars Parking related All Minor Arterial,Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban

Countermeasure: Mark parking stalls

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.51 -51 4 Stars All All Local Urban
2.28 -128 2 Stars Parking related All Local Urban

Countermeasure: Prohibit on-street parking

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.8 20 5 Stars All A,B,C Minor Arterial Urban
0.73 27 5 Stars All O Minor Arterial Urban

Countermeasure: Prohibit parking on one side of road

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.49 -49 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Urban

Category:Pedestrians

Countermeasure: Install raised pedestrian crosswalks

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.64 36 1 Star All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.55 46 1 Star Vehicle/pedestrian A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.7 30 1 Star All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Raised intersections

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.05 -5 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
1.13 -13 1 Star All O Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Widen sidewalks at intersections

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.12 -12 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Category:Railroad grade crossings

Countermeasure: Implementing signs and crossbucks at previously unprotected crossings

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 25 3 Stars All Not Specified Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install automatic gates at crossings that previously had flashing lights and sound signals

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.55 [B] 45 4 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install automatic gates at crossings that previously had passive traffic control

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.33 [B] 67 4 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install flashing lights and sound signals

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.5 [B] 50 5 Stars All All Not Specified Not Specified

Category:Roadside

Countermeasure: Change barrier along embankment to less rigid type

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.59 [I] 41 3 Stars Run off road K Not specified Not specified
0.68 [B] 32 4 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Flatten sideslope from 1V:3H to 1V:4H

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.58 42 5 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.71 29 5 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Flatten sideslope from 1V:4H to 1V:6H

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 22 5 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Rural
0.76 24 5 Stars All O Not specified Rural

Countermeasure: Increase distance to roadside features from 16.7 ft to 30 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.56 [B] 44 5 Stars All All All Rural

Countermeasure: Increase distance to roadside features from 3.3 ft to 16.7 ft

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 [B] 22 5 Stars All All All Rural

Countermeasure: Increase triangle sight distance

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.3 -30 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
1.29 -29 1 Star All O Not specified Not specified
0.53 48 3 Stars All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.89 11 3 Stars All O Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install any type of median barrier

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.57 [B] 43 4 Stars All K Principal Arterial Other Rural
0.7 [B] 30 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural
1.24 [B] -24 5 Stars All All Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Install cable median barrier

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.71 [B] 29 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Install concrete guardrail in median

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
1.15 -15 3 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Not specified

Countermeasure: Install crash cushions at fixed roadside features

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.31 [I] 69 3 Stars Fixed object K Not Specified Not Specified
0.31 [B] 69 4 Stars Fixed object A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.54 [I] 46 3 Stars Fixed object O Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install steel median barrier

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.65 [B] 35 4 Stars All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Rural

Countermeasure: Install wire guardrails between lanes of opposing traffic

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0 100 1 Star All K Principal Arterial Other Not specified
0.74 26 1 Star All A,B,C Principal Arterial Other Not specified
1.34 -34 1 Star All All Principal Arterial Other Not specified

Countermeasure: New guardrail along embankment

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.56 44 4 Stars Run off road K Not specified Not specified
0.53 47 5 Stars Run off road A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.93 7 3 Stars Run off road All Not specified Not specified

Category:Roadway

Countermeasure: Effects of snow fences and higher state of preparedness for the whole winter season

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 11 3 Stars All All All All
0.92 8 3 Stars All All All All

Countermeasure: Effects of use of salt (chemical de-icing) during the whole winter season (baseline = no salt)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.85 15 3 Stars All A,B,C All All
0.92 8 3 Stars All O All All
1.12 -12 3 Stars All A,B,C All All
1 0 3 Stars All O All All

Countermeasure: Raise standard by one class for winter maintenance

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 [B] 11 5 Stars All A,B,C All All
0.73 [B] 27 5 Stars All O All All

Countermeasure: Short-term effects of all measures to control snow, slush or ice

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.5 50 4 Stars All Not Specified All All
0.71 29 3 Stars All Not Specified All All
0.96 5 3 Stars All Not Specified All All

Category:Signs

Countermeasure: Advance static curve warning signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.7 30 1 Star All A,B,C Not specified Not specified
0.92 8 1 Star All O Not specified Not specified

Countermeasure: Install combination horizontal alignment/ advisory speed signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.87 [B] 13 3 Stars All A,B,C Not Specified Not Specified
0.71 [I] 29 3 Stars All O Not Specified Not Specified

Countermeasure: Install signs to conform to MUTCD

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.85 15 3 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban
0.93 7 3 Stars All O Local Urban

Category:Speed management

Countermeasure: Adjacent to roads with speed humps

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.95 [B*] 5 3 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Area-wide or corridor-specific traffic calming

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 [B] 11 5 Stars All A,B,C All Urban
0.82 [B] 18 3 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban
0.94 [B*] 6 3 Stars All A,B,C Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban
0.95 [I*] 5 3 Stars All O All Urban
0.94 [B*] 6 3 Stars All O Local Urban
0.97 [I*] 3 3 Stars All O Major Collector,Minor Collector Urban

Countermeasure: Install speed humps

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.6 [I] 40 4 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.5 50 4 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Install transverse rumble strips as traffic calming device

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.66 34 4 Stars All All Local Urban and Suburban
0.64 36 4 Stars All A,B,C Local Urban and Suburban
0.73 28 2 Stars All O Local Urban and Suburban

Countermeasure: Traffic calming

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.68 32 4 Stars All All Minor Collector Urban
0.67 33 4 Stars All A,B,C Minor Collector Urban
0.75 25 3 Stars All O Minor Collector Urban
0.67 33 4 Stars All A,B,C Minor Collector Urban

The information contained in the Crash Modification Factors (CMF) Clearinghouse is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in the CMF Clearinghouse. The information contained in the CMF Clearinghouse does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation, nor is it a substitute for sound engineering judgment.