Study Details

Study Title: Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness to Make Intersections Safer

Authors: ITE

Publication Date: 2004

Abstract:

Study Citation: Institute of Transportation Engineers, "Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness to Make Intersections Safer." Briefing Sheet 8, ITE, FHWA, (2004)


CMFs Associated With This Study

Category: Access management

Countermeasure: Install raised median

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 25 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.75 25 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.31 69 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install raised median (unsignalized intersection)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.31 69 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Category:Delineation

Countermeasure: Install raised pavement markers

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.9 10 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.75 25 Cannot Be Rated Wet road All Not specified
0.67 33 Cannot Be Rated Nighttime,Wet road All Not specified

Countermeasure: Mark pavement with supplementary warning messages

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.94 6 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.7 30 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Category:Highway lighting

Countermeasure: Install lighting

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.53 47 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Category:Intersection geometry

Countermeasure: Convert four-leg intersection into two three-leg intersections

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.43 57 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install left-turn lane

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.67 33 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.32 68 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install left-turn lane (physical channelization)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.56 44 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified Rural
0.72 28 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified Rural
0.58 42 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.67 33 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified Urban
0.73 27 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified Urban

Countermeasure: Install left-turn lane (signal has left-turn phase)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.69 31 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.56 44 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install left-turn lane (signal has no turn phase)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.77 23 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.5 50 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install left-turn lane (within existing curbs)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.74 26 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.34 66 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install left-turn lane and add turn phase

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.42 58 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install refuge islands

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.44 56 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified
0.44 56 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install right-turn lane

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.86 14 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified Rural
0.79 21 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified Rural
0.73 27 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Category:Intersection traffic control

Countermeasure: Add centerline and move STOP bar to extended curb lines

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.71 29 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.76 24 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Add centerline and move STOP bar to extended curb lines, double stop signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.91 9 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
1 0 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Add centerline and STOP bar, replace 24-inch with 30-inch stop signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.33 67 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Add exclusive pedestrian phasing

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.66 34 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Add signal (additional primary head)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.9 10 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.58 42 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Convert minor-road stop control to all-way stop control

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.36 64 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.16 84 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Convert signal from pedestal-mounted to mast arm

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.64 36 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Convert Yield control to STOP control

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.71 29 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.91 9 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Improve visibility of signal heads (install two red displays in each head)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.91 9 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.64 36 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install beacon (flashing) at intersection

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.66 34 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install double stop signs

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 11 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.64 36 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install flashing beacons as advance warning

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.73 27 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install larger signal lenses (12 inch)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.89 11 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.89 11 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.52 48 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install signal backplates only

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.87 13 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.5 50 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install STOP bars (pedestrian crosswalk)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.82 18 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install STOP bars (STOP bar on minor road approaches, with short segments of centerline)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.81 19 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.53 47 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Modify signal phasing (implement a leading pedestrian interval)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.95 5 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Prohibit right-turn-on-red

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.77 23 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Provide protected left-turn phase

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.95 5 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Provide signal coordination

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.84 16 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.68 32 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Provide split phases

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 25 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Remove unwarranted signals

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.48 52 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Replace Night-Time Flash with Steady Operation

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.71 29 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.2 80 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Countermeasure: Replace signal lenses with optical lenses

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.83 17 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Category:On-street parking

Countermeasure: Restrict parking near intersections (to off-street)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.51 49 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Category:Pedestrians

Countermeasure: Install angled median crosswalk

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.88 12 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install pedestrian crossing (signed and marked with curb ramps and extensions)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.63 37 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install pedestrian overpass/underpass

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.87 13 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install pedestrian overpass/underpass (unsignalized intersection)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.87 13 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install raised pedestrian crosswalks

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.92 8 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified
0.92 8 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Category:Roadway

Countermeasure: Improve pavement friction (groove)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.75 25 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.41 59 Cannot Be Rated Wet road All Not specified

Countermeasure: Resurface pavement

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.67 33 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.53 47 Cannot Be Rated Wet road All Not specified

Category:Signs

Countermeasure: Install advance warning signs (positive guidance)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.78 22 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified
0.65 35 Cannot Be Rated Angle All Not specified

Category:Speed management

Countermeasure: Increase enforcement to reduce speed

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.3 70 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified
0.3 70 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install transverse rumble strips on approaches

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.65 35 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified Rural
0.77 23 Cannot Be Rated All All Not specified

Category:Transit

Countermeasure: Install far-side bus stops

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.99 1 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

Countermeasure: Install far-side bus stops (signalized intersection)

CMF CRF(%) Quality Crash Type Crash Severity Roadway Type Area Type
0.99 1 Cannot Be Rated Vehicle/pedestrian All Not specified

The information contained in the Crash Modification Factors (CMF) Clearinghouse is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in the CMF Clearinghouse. The information contained in the CMF Clearinghouse does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation, nor is it a substitute for sound engineering judgment.